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H. Blondin, B. Abrahms, L. Crowder, E.L. Hazen. 2020. Combining high temporal resolution blue whale distribution and vessel tracking data improves estimates of ship strike risk in the Southern California Bight. Biological Conservation. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2020.108757. PDF

S. Dodson, B. Abrahms, S.J. Bograd, J. Fiechter, and E.L. Hazen. 2020. Disentangling the biotic and abiotic drivers of emergent migratory behavior using individual-based models. Ecological Modeling. DOI: PDF

G. Ortuño Crespo, J. Mossop, D. Dunn, K. Gjerde, E.L. Hazen, G. Reygondeau, R. Warner, and P. Halpin. 2020. Beyond static spatial management: scientific and legal considerations for dynamic management in the high seas. Marine Policy. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2020.104102. PDF

Muhling, S. Brodie, J.A. Smith, D. Tommasi, C.F. Gaitan, E.L. Hazen, M. Jacox, T.D. Auth, and R.D. Brodeur. 2020. Predictability of species distributions deteriorates under novel environmental conditions in the California Current System. Frontiers in Marine Science. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2020.00589. PDF

M.A. Cimino, J.A. Santora, I. Schroeder, W. Sydeman, M.G. Jacox, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd. 2020. Essential krill species habitat resolved by seasonal upwelling and ocean circulation models within the large marine ecosystem of the California Current System. Ecography. DOI: 10.1111/ecog.05204. PDF

E.A. Becker, J.V. Carretta, K.A. Forney, J. Barlow, S. Brodie, R. Hoopes, M.G. Jacox, S.M. Maxwell, J.V. Redfern, N.B. Sisson, H. Welch, E.L. Hazen. 2020. Performance evaluation of cetacean species distribution models developed using generalized additive models and boosted regression trees. Ecology and Evolution. DOI:10.1002/ece3.6316. PDF

S.J. Dundas, A.S. Levine, R.L. Lewison, A.N. Doerr,  C. White, A.W.E. Galloway, C. Garza, E.L. Hazen, J. Padilla-Gamiño, J.F. Samhouri, A. Spalding, A. Stier, J. Wilson White, 2020. Integrating Oceans into Climate Policy: Any Green New Deal Needs a Splash of Blue. Conservation Letters. DOI: 10.1111/conl.12716. PDF

E.A. Aalto, K.D. Lafferty, S.H. Sokolow, R.E. Grewelle, T. Ben-Horin, C.A. Boch, P.T. Raimondi, S.J. Bograd, E.L. Hazen, M.G. Jacox, F. Micheli, and G.A. DeLeo, 2020. Environmental triggers offer a plausible mechanism for the rapid spread of infectious disease outbreaks in marine organisms. Scientific Reports. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-62118-4. PDF

M.S. Savoca, S. Brodie, H. Welch, A. Hoover, L.R. Benaka, S.J. Bograd, and E.L. Hazen, 2020. Comprehensive bycatch assessment in US fisheries for prioritizing management. Nature Sustainability. DOI: 10.1038/s41893-020-0506-9. PDF

H. Welch, S. Brodie, M. Jacox, D. Robinson, C. Wilson, S.J. Bograd, M. Oliver, and E.L. Hazen, 2020.Considerations for transferring an operational dynamic ocean management tool between ocean color products. Remote Sensing of the Environment. DOI: 10.1016/j.rse.2020.111753. PDF

J.A. Thayer, E.L. Hazen, M. García-Reyes, A. Szoboszlai, and W.J. Sydeman, 2020. Implementing ecosystem considerations in forage fisheries: San Francisco Bay herring case study. Marine Policy. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2020.103884. PDF

M.G. Jacox, M. Alexander, D. Barrie, S.J. Bograd, S. Brodie, A. Capotondi, K. Chen, W. Cheng, E. Di Lorenzo, C. Edwards, J. Fiechter, P. Fratantoni, R. Griffis, E.L. Hazen, A. Hermann, H. Kim, A. Kumar, Y. Kwon, M. Merrifield, A. Miller, I. Ortiz, D. Pirhalla, M. Pozo Buil, S. Ray, S. Sheridan, S. Siedlecki, A. Subramanian, P. Thompson, L. Thorne, D. Tommasi, M. Widlansky, 2020. Seasonal-to-interannual prediction of U.S. coastal marine ecosystems: Forecast methods, mechanisms of predictability, and priority developments. Progress in Oceanography. DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2020.102307. PDF

T.O. Gagné, G. Reygondeau, C.N. Jenkins, J.O. Sexton, S.J. Bograd, E.L. Hazen, K.S. Van Houtan, 2020. Towards a global understanding of the drivers of marine and terrestrial biodiversity. PLOS One. 15 (2): e0228065. PDF

J. Santora, N. Mantua, I. Schroeder, J. Field, E.L. Hazen, S. Bograd, W. Sydeman, B. Wells, J. Calambokidis, L. Saez, D. Lawson, and K. Forney, 2020. Habitat compression and ecosystem shifts as potential links between marine heatwave and record whale entanglements. Nature Communications. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-019-14215-w. PDF

M. Sabal, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, B. MacFarlane, I.D. Schroeder, S. Hayes, J. Harding, K. Scales, P. Miller, A. Ammann, and B. Wells, 2020. The California Current seascape influences juvenile salmon foraging ecology at multiple scales. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 634: 159–173. PDF

Jackson-Ricketts, JJ, C. Junchompoo, E.M. Hines, E.L. Hazen, L.S. Ponnampalam, A. Ilangakoon, and S. Monanunsap, 2020. Habitat Modeling of Irrawaddy Dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) in the Eastern Gulf of Thailand. Ecology and the Environment. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.6023. PDF


J. Smith, D. Tommasi, J. Sweeney, S. Brodie, H. Welch, E.L. Hazen, B. Muhling, S. Stohs, and M. Jacox. 2019. Lost opportunity: quantifying the dynamic economic impact from time-area fishery closures. Journal of Applied Ecology. doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.13565, PDF

J.A. Goldbogen, D. E. Cade, D. M. Wisniewska, J. Potvin, P.S. Segre, M. S. Savoca, E. L. Hazen, M. F. Czapanskiy, S. R. Kahane-Rapport, S. L. DeRuiter, S. Gero, P. Tønnesen, W. T. Gough, M. B. Hanson, M. Holt, F. H. Jensen, M. Simon, A. K. Stimpert, P. Arranz, D. W. Johnston, D. P. Nowacek, S. E. Parks, F. Visser, A. S. Friedlaender, P. L. Tyack, P. T. Madsen, and N. D. Pyenson, 2019. Why whales are big but not bigger: physiological drivers and ecological limits in the age of ocean giants. Science. 366, 1367–1372. PDF

E.L. Hazen, B. Abrahms, S. Brodie, G. Carroll, M. Jacox, M.S. Savoca, K.L. Scales, W.J. Sydeman, and S.J. Bograd, 2019. Marine Top Predators as Climate and Ecosystem Sentinels. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. DOI: 10.1002/fee.2125 PDF

C.J. Closek, J.A. Santora, H.A. Starks, I.D. Schroeder, E.A. Andruszkiewicz, K.M. Sakuma, S.J. Bograd, E.L. Hazen, J.C. Field, A.B. Boehm, 2019. Marine vertebrate biodiversity and distribution within the central California Current using environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding and ecosystem surveys. Frontiers in Marine Science. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00732 PDF

E.M. Keen, K. Scales, B. Rone, E.L. Hazen, E.A. Falcone, G.S. Schorr, 2019. Night and day: diel differences in ship strike risk for fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus) in the California Current. Frontiers in Marine Science. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00730 PDF

R.L. Selden, J.T. Thorson, J.F. Samhouri, S.J. Bograd, S. Brodie, G. Carroll, M.A. Haltuch, E.L. Hazen, K.K. Holsman, M.L. Pinsky, E. Willis-Norton, 2019. Adapting to change? Availability of fish stocks to fishing communities on the U.S. West Coast. ICES Journal of Marine Science. DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fsz211 PDF

S. Brodie, J. Thorson, G. Carroll, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, M. Haltuch, K. Holsman, S. Kotwicki, J. Samhouri, E. Willis-Norton, and R. Selden, 2019. Trade‐offs in covariate selection for species distribution models: a methodological comparison. Ecography. DOI: 10.1111/ecog.04707 PDF

H. Welch, S. Brodie, M.G. Jacox, S.J Bograd, E.L. Hazen, 2019. Comparing decision support tools for multi-species dynamic management. Conservation Biology. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13417 PDF

A.S. Friedlaender, M.T. Bowers, D. Cade, E.L. Hazen, A.K. Stimpert, A.N. Allen, J. Calambokidis, B.L. Southall, and J.A. Goldbogen, 2019. The advantages of diving deep: fin whales more than double their energy intake by targeting deep krill patches. Functional Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/1365-2435.13471 PDF

S.M. Woodman, K.A. Forney, E.A. Becker, M.L. DeAngelis, E.L. Hazen, D.M. Palacios, J.V. Redfern, 2019. eSDM: A tool for creating and exploring ensembles of predictions from species distribution models. Methods in Ecology and Evolution,10:1923–1933. PDF

G. Carroll, K.K. Holsman, S. Brodie, J.T. Thorson, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, M.A. Haltuch, S. Kotwicki, J. Samhouri, P. Spencer, E. Willis-Norton, and R.L. Selden, 2019. A review of methods for quantifying spatial predator-prey overlap. Global Ecology and Biogeography, DOI: 10.1111/geb.12984 PDF

L.M. Crozier, M. McClure, T. Beechie, S.J. Bograd, D.A. Boughton, M. Carr, T. Cooney, J. Dunham, C. Greene, M. Haltuch, E.L. Hazen, D. Holzer, D.D. Huff, R.C. Johnson, C. Jordan, I. Kaplan, S.T. Lindley, N. Mantua, P. Moyle, J. Myers, M.W. Nelson, B.C. Spence, L. Weitkamp, T.H. Williams, and E. Willis-Norton, 2019. Climate vulnerability assessment for Pacific salmon and steelhead in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem, PLoS ONE. 14(7): e0217711 PDF

H. Townsend, C.J. Harvey , Y. deReynier , D. Davis, S. Zador, S. Gaichas, M. Weijerman, E.L. Hazen, and I.C. Kaplan, 2019. Progress on Implementing Ecosystem-Based Fisheries Management in the United States Through the Use of Ecosystem Models and Analysis. Frontiers in Marine Science. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00641 PDF

D.M. Palacios, H. Bailey, E.A. Becker, S.J. Bograd, M.L. DeAngelis, K.A. Forney, E.L. Hazen, L.M. Irvine, and B.R. Mate. 2019. Ecological correlates of blue whale movement behavior and its predictability in the California Current Ecosystem during the summer-fall feeding season. Movement Ecology. DOI: 10.1186/s40462-019-0164-6 PDF

P. Arranz, K. Benoit-Bird, A.S. Friedlaender, E.L. Hazen, J.A. Goldbogen, A.K. Stimpert, S.L. DeRuiter, J. Calambokidis, B.L. Southall, A. Fahlman, and P.L. Tyack, 2019. Diving behaviour and fine-scale kinematics of free-ranging Risso’s dolphins foraging in shallow and deep-water habitats. DOI: 10.3389/fevo.2019.00053 PDF

J.O. Schmidt, S.J. Bograd, H. Arrizabalaga, S.J. Barbeaux, J.A. Barth, T. Boyer, S. Brodie, S. Cross, J.-N. Druon, A. Fransson, J. Hartog, E.L. Hazen, J. Karstensen, A.J. Hobday, M. Jacox, S. Kupschus, J. Lopez, L.A.S.-P. Madureira, J.E. Martinelli Filho, P. Miloslavich, C. Pereira Santos, K. Scales, S. Speich, M.B. Sullivan, A. Szoboszlai, D. Tommasi, D. Wallace, S. Zador, 2019. Future observations to connect climate, fisheries and marine ecosystems. Frontiers in Marine Science. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00550 PDF

R. Harcourt, A.M.M Sequeira, X. Zhang, F. Roquet, K. Komatsu, M. Heupel, C.R. McMahon, F.G. Whoriskey, M. Meekan, G. Carroll, S. Brodie, C. Simpfendorfer, M.A. Hindell, I.D. Jonsen, D.P. Costa, B.A. Block, M.M.C. Muelbert, B.E. Woodward, M.J. Weises, K. Aarestrup, M. Biuw, L. Boehme, S.J. Bograd, D. Cazau, J.-B. Charrassin, S. Cooke, P.D. Cowley, P.J. Nico De Bruyn, T.J. Du Dot, C.M. Duarte, V.M. Eguíluz, L. Ferreira, J. Fernández-Gracia, K. Goetz, Y. Goto, C. Guinet, M. Hammill, G.C. Hays, E. L. Hazen, L. Huckstadt, C. Huveneers, S. Iverson, S.A. Jaaman, K. Kittiwattanawong, K. Kovacs, C. Lydersen, T. Moltmann, M. Naruoka, B. Picard, N. Queiroz, G. Reverdin, K. Sato, D.W. Sims, E.B. Thorstad, M. Thums, A.M, Treasure, A. Trites, G.D. Williams, Y. Yonehara, M. Fedak, 2019. Animal-Borne Telemetry: an integral component of the ocean observing toolkit. Frontiers in Marine Science. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00326 PDF

M.H. Carr and E.L. Hazen, 2019. Ecological Connectivity in the Ocean in Corridor Ecology (2nd edition), ed. by J.A. Hilty, A.T.H. Keeley, W.Z. Lidicker Jr., and A.M. Merenlender. Island Press pp. 216-238. Link

A.J. Hobday, B.A. Muhling, E.L. Hazen, H. Arrizabalaga, J.P. Eveson, M.A. Roffer, and J.R. Hartog, 2019. Predicting the distribution of bluefin tunas in a changing ocean. JHU Press. In Bluefin Futures, B.A. Block, ed. pp 270-294. Link

B. Abrahms, H. Welch, S. Brodie, M.G. Jacox, E.A. Becker, S.J. Bograd, L.M. Irvine, D.M. Palacios, B.R. Mate, and E.L. Hazen, 2019. Dynamic ensemble models to predict distributions and anthropogenic risk exposure for highly mobile species. Diversity and Distributions 25:1182–1193. PDF

A.R. Thompson, C. Barceló, S.J. Bograd, R.D. Brodeur, J. Fiechter, J.C. Field, N. Garfield, T.P. Good, E.L. Hazen, M.E. Hunsicker, M.G. Jacox, A. Leising, J. Lindsay, S.R. Melin, J.A. Santora, I.D. Schroeder, W.J. Sydeman, J.A. Thayer, B.K. Wells, G.D. Williams and C.J. Harvey, 2019. Ecological indicators of the status and trends of the pelagic forage community in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem, 1998-2016. Ecological Indicators 105: 215–228, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.05.057 PDF

S.M. Maxwell, K.L. Scales, S.J. Bograd, D.K. Briscoe, H. Dewar, E.L. Hazen, R.L. Lewison, H. Welch, and L.B. Crowder, 2019. Oceanographic drivers of spatial segregation in blue sharks by sex and size class. Diversity and Distributions 25: 1304-1317. PDF

K.K. Holsman, E.L. Hazen, A. Haynie, S. Gourguet, A. Hollowed, S.J. Bograd, J. Samhouri, and K. Aydin, 2019. Toward climate resiliency in fisheries management. ICES J Marine Science 76: 1368–1378. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsz031 PDF

J. Mason, J. Alfaro-Shigueto, J.C. Mangle, S. Brodie, S.J. Bograd, L. Crowder, and E.L. Hazen, 2019. Convergence of fishers’ knowledge with a species distribution model in a Peruvian shark fishery. Conservation Science and Practice. doi: 10.1111/csp2.13 PDF

G.C. Hays, H. Bailey, S.J. Bograd, W.D. Bowen, C. Campagna, R.H. Carmichael, P. Casale, A. Chiaradia, D.P. Costa, E. Cuevas, P.J.N. de Bruyn, M.P. Dias, C.M. Duarte, D.C. Dunn, P.H. Dutton, N. Esteban, A. Friedlaender, K.T. Goetz, B.J. Godley, P.N. Halpin, M. Hamann, N. Hammerschlag, R. Harcourt, A.L. Harrison, E.L. Hazen, M.R. Heupel, E. Hoyt, N.E. Humphries, C.Y. Kot, J.S.E. Lea, H. Marsh, S.M. Maxwell, C.R. McMahon, G. Notarbartolo di Sciara, D.M. Palacios, R.A. Phillips, D. Righton, G. Schofield, J.A. Seminoff, C.A. Simpfendorfer, D.W. Sims, A. Takahashi, M.J. Tetley, M. Thums, P.N. Trathan, S. Villegas-Amtmann, R.S. Wells, S.D. Whiting, N.E. Wildermann, A.M.M. Sequeira, 2019. Translating marine animal tracking data into conservation policy and management. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 34: 459-473. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2019.01.009 PDF

T.D. White, F. Ferretti, D.A. Kroodsma, E.L. Hazen, A.B. Carlisle, K.L. Scales, S.J. Bograd, B.A. Block, 2019. Predicted hotspots of overlap between highly migratory fishes and industrial fishing fleets in the Northeast Pacific. Science Advances, 5: eaau3761. PDF

B. Abrahms, E.L. Hazen, E.O. Aikens, M.S. Savoca, J.A. Goldbogen, S.J. Bograd, M. Jacox, L. M. Irvine, D.M. Palacios, B.R. Mate, 2019. Memory and resource tracking drive blue whale migrations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences . doi: 10.1073/pnas.1819031116. PDF

B.L. Southall, S.L. DeRuiter, A.S. Friedlaender, A.K. Stimpert, J.A. Goldbogen, E.L. Hazen, C. Casey, S. Fregosi, D.E. Cade, A. Allen, C. M. Harris, E. Falcone, G. Schorr, D. Moretti, G. Gailey, S. Guan, John Calambokidis, 2019. Behavioral responses of individual blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) to mid-frequency military sonar. Journal of Experimental Biology. 222, jeb190637. doi:10.1242/jeb.190637 PDF

J. Mason, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, H. Dewar, and L. Crowder, 2019. Community-level effects of spatial management in the California drift gillnet fishery. Fisheries Research. 214: 175–182. PDF

H. Welch, E.L. Hazen, D. Briscoe, S.J. Bograd, M. Jacox, T. Eguchi, S.R. Benson, T. Fahy, T. Garfield, D. Robinson, J.A. Seminoff, and H. Bailey. 2019. Environmental indicators to reduce loggerhead turtle bycatch offshore southern California. Ecological Indicators,98 (2019) 657–664, doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.11.001.PDF


R. Runcie, B. Muhling, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, T. Garfield, G. DiNardo, 2018. Environmental associations of Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) catch in the California Current system. Fisheries Oceanography, doi:10.1111/fog.12418. PDF

T. Kirchner, D. Wiley. E. Hazen, S. Parks, L. Torres, A. Friedlaender, 2018. Hierarchical foraging movement of humpback whales relative to the structure of their prey. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 607:237-250. doi: 10.3354/meps12789. PDF

M.G. Jacox, C. A. Edwards, E. L. Hazen, and S. J. Bograd, 2018. Coastal upwelling revisited: Ekman, Bakun, and improved upwelling indices for the U.S. west coast, Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1029/2018JC014187. PDF

H. Welch, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, M.G. Jacox, S. Brodie, K.S. Scales, D. Robinson, L. Dewitt, and R. Lewison. 2018. Practical considerations for operationalizing dynamic management tools. Journal of Applied Ecology.DOI: 10.1111/1365-2664.13281. PDF

E.L. Hazen, K.L. Scales, S.M. Maxwell, D. Briscoe, H. Welch, S.J. Bograd, H. Bailey, S.R. Benson, T. Eguchi, H. Dewar, S. Kohin, D.P. Costa, L.B. Crowder, R.L. Lewison. 2018. A dynamic ocean management tool to reduce bycatch and support sustainable fisheries. Science Advances, 4: eaar3001. PDF

D.A. Croll, B.R. Tershy, K.M. Newton, A. de Vos, E.L. Hazen, and J.A. Goldbogen, 2018. “Filter feeding.” In Encyclopedia of marine mammals, pp. 363-368. Academic Press. PDF

B. Abrahms, K.L. Scales, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, R.S. Schick, P.W. Robinson, D.P. Costa. 2018. Mesoscale activity facilitates energy gain in a top predator. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 285: 20181101. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.1101. PDF

I.D. Schroeder, J.A. Santora, S.J. Bograd, E.L. Hazen, K.M. Sakuma, A.M. Moore, C.A. Edwards, B.K. Wells, J.C. Field, 2018. Source water variability as a driver of rockfish recruitment in the California Current Ecosystem: implications for climate change and fisheries management. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 76: 950-960. PDF

K.L. Scales, E.L. Hazen, M. Jacox, F. Castruccio, S. Maxwell, R. Lewison, S. Bograd. 2018. Fisheries bycatch risk to marine megafauna is intensified in Lagrangian coherent structures Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1801270115. PDF

E.A. McHuron, E.L. Hazen, D.P. Costa. 2018. Constrained by consistency? Repeatability of foraging behavior at multiple timescales for a generalist marine predator. Marine Biology, 165: 122. PDF

S. Brodie, M.G. Jacox, S.J. Bograd, H. Welch, H. Dewar, K.L. Scales, S.M. Maxwell, D.K. Briscoe, C.A. Edwards, L.B. Crowder, R.L. Lewison, and E.L. Hazen. 2018. Integrating dynamic subsurface habitat metrics into species distribution models. Frontiers in Marine Science. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00219. PDF

H. Bailey, E.L. Hazen, B. Mate, S.J. Bograd, L. Irvine, D.M. Palacios, K.A. Forney, E. Howell, A. Hoover, L. DeWitt, J. Wingfield, M. DeAngelis. In press. Lessons learned from WhaleWatch, a tool using satellite data to provide near real- time predictions of whale occurrence. Chapter in: Satellite Remote Sensing for Conservation Action: Case Studies of Implementation. Graeme M. Buchanan and Allison K. Leidner (eds). Link

L. Siegelman-Charbit, J.A. Koslow, M.G. Jacox, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, E.F. Miller, and J.A. McGowan, 2018. Physical forcing on fish population dynamics in the southern California Current System. Fisheries Oceanography, doi: 10.1111/fog.12267 PDF

D.K. Briscoe, S. Fossette, K. Scales, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, S.M. Maxwell, E. McHuron, P. Robinson, C. Kuhn, D.P. Costa, L.B. Crowder, and R. Lewison, 2018. Characterizing habitat suitability of a central-place forager in a dynamic marine environment. Ecology and Evolution. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3827. PDF

B.A. Abrahms, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, J.S. Brashares, P.W. Robinson, K.L. Scales, D.E. Crocker, D.P. Costa, 2018. Climate mediates the success of migration strategies in a marine predator. Ecology Letters, 2018, 21: 63-71. doi:10.1111/ele.12871. PDF


A.S.Friedlaender, J.R. Herbert-Read, E.L. Hazen, D.E. Cade, J. Calambokidis, B.L. Southall, A.K. Stimpert, J.A. Goldbogen, 2017. Context-dependent lateralized feeding strategies in blue whales. Current Biology, 2017, 27: R1206-R1208. PDF

K.L. Scales, E.L. Hazen, S.M. Maxwell, H. Dewar, S. Kohin, M.G. Jacox, C.A. Edwards, D.K. Briscoe, L.B. Crowder, R.L. Lewison, S.J. Bograd, 2017. Fit to predict? Eco-informatics for predicting the catchability of a pelagic fish in near real time. Ecological Applications, 27: 2313-2329. PDF

S. Fossette, B. Abrahms, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, K.M. Zilliacus, J. Calambokidis, J.A. Burrows, J.A. Goldbogen, J.T. Harvey, B. Marinovic, B. Tershy, D.A. Croll M.C., 2017. Resource partitioning facilitates coexistence in sympatric cetaceans in the California Current. Ecology and Evolution: 1-13. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.3409. PDF

J.A. Santora, E.L. Hazen, I.D. Schroeder, S.J. Bograd, K.M. Sakuma, J.C. Field, 2017. Impacts of ocean climate variability on biodiversity of pelagic forage species in an upwelling system. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 580: 205-220. DOI: 10.3354/meps12278. PDF

L. Mannocci, A.M. Boustany, J.J. Roberts, D.M. Palacios, D.C. Dunn, P.N. Halpin, S. Viehman, J. Moxley, J. Cleary, H. Bailey, S.J. Bograd, E.A. Becker, B. Gardner, J.R. Hartog, E.L. Hazen, M.C. Ferguson, K.A. Forney, B.P. Kinlan, M.J. Oliver, C.T. Perretti, V. Ridoux, S.L.H. Teo, A.J. Winship, 2017. Temporal resolutions in species distribution models of highly mobile marine animals: Recommendations for ecologists and managers. Diversity and Distributions, 23: 1098-1109. DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12609. PDF

J.C. Tam, J.S. Link, S.I. Large, K. Andrews, K.D. Friedland, J. Gove, E.L. Hazen, K. Holsman, M. Karnauskas, J.F. Samhouri, R. Shuford, N. Tomilieri, S. Zador, 2017. Comparing Apples to Oranges: Common Trends and Thresholds in Anthropogenic and Environmental Pressures across Multiple Marine Ecosystems. Frontiers in Marine Science, 4: 282. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2017.00282. PDF

D.M. Coffey, A.B. Carlisle, E.L. Hazen, B.A. Block, 2017. Oceanographic drivers of the vertical distribution of a highly migratory, endothermic shark. Scientific Reports, 7: 10434. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-11059-6. PDF

K.L. Scales, G.S. Schorr, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, P.I. Miller, R.D. Andrews, A.N. Zerbini, E.A. Falcone, 2017. Should I stay or should I go? Modelling year-round habitat suitability and drivers of residency for fin whales in the California Current. Diversity and Distributions 23:1204–1215. DOI: 10.1111/ddi.12611. PDF

B. Abrahms, D.P. Seidel, E. Dougherty, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, A.M. Wilson, J.W. McNutt, D.P. Costa, S. Blake, J.S. Brashares, and W.M. Getz, 2017. Suite of simple metrics reveals common movement syndromes across vertebrate taxa. Movement Ecology, 5(12): 1-11. DOI: 10.1186/s40462-017-0104-2. PDF

J.F. Samhouri, K.S. Andrews, G. Fay, C.J. Harvey, E.L. Hazen, S.M. Hennessey, K. Holsman, M.E. Hunsicker, S.I. Large, K.N. Marshall, A.C. Stier, J.C. Tam, S.G. Zador, 2017. Defining ecosystem thresholds for human activities and environmental pressures in the California Current. Ecosphere. doi/10.1002/ecs2.1860/full PDF

N. Hahlbeck, K. Scales, H. Dewar, S.M. Maxwell, S.J. Bograd, E.L. Hazen, 2017. Oceanographic determinants of ocean sunfish (Mola mola) and bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis) bycatch patterns in the California large mesh drift gillnet fishery, Fisheries Research, 191:154-163. PDF

K. Holsman, J. Samhouri, G. Cook, E.L. Hazen, E. Olsen, M. Dillard, S. Kasperski, S. Gaichas, C.R. Kelble, M. Fogarty, K. Andrews, 2017. An ecosystem-based approach to risk assessment. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability, 3:e01256. 10.1002/ehs2.1256 PDF

E.L. Hazen, D.M. Palacios, K.A. Forney, E.A. Howell, E. Becker, A.L. Hoover, L. Irvine, M. DeAngelis, S.J. Bograd, B.R. Mate, H. Bailey, 2017. WhaleWatch: a dynamic management tool for predicting blue whale density in the California Current, Journal of Applied Ecology, doi: 10.1111/1365-2664.12820 PDF

K.Scales, E.L. Hazen, M. Jacox, C. Edwards, A. Boustany, M. Oliver, S.J. Bograd, 2016. Scale of inference: On the sensitivity of habitat models for wide-ranging marine predators to the resolution of environmental data. Ecography, 40: 210–220 doi: 10.1111/ecog.02272 PDF


E.L. Hazen, A. Carlisle, S.G. Wilson, J.E. Ganong, M.R. Castleton, R.J. Schallert, M.J.W. Stokesbury, S.J. Bograd, B.A. Block, 2016. Quantifying overlap between the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and predicted bluefin tuna spawning habitat in the Gulf of Mexico, Scientific Reports 33824 doi: 10.1038/srep33824 PDF

D.K. Briscoe, D.M. Parker, S. Bograd, E.L. Hazen, K. Scales, G.H. Balazs, M. Kurita, T. Saito, H. Okamoto, M. Rice, J.J. Polovina, L.B. Crowder, 2016. Multi-year tracking reveals extensive pelagic phase of juvenile loggerhead sea turtles in the North Pacific, Movement Ecology 4, doi: 10.1186/s40462-016-0087-4 PDF

S. Fossette, K. Katija; J.A. Goldbogen, S. Bograd, W. Patry, M.J. Howard, T. Knowles, S.H.D. Haddock, L. Bedell, E.L. Hazen, B.H. Robison, T.A. Mooney, K.A. Shorter, T. Bastian, A.C. Gleiss. How to tag a jellyfish? A methodological review and guidelines to successful jellyfish tagging. Journal of Plankton Research 2016; doi: 10.1093/plankt/fbw073 PDF

M. Jacox, E.L. Hazen, K.D. Zaba, D.L. Rudnich, C.A. Edwards, A.M. Moore, and S.J. Bograd, 2016. Impacts of the 2015-2016 El Niño on the California Current System: Early assessment and comparison to past events, Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2016GL069716 PDF

M. Jacox, E.L. Hazen, and S.J. Bograd, 2016. Optimal Environmental Conditions and Anomalous Ecosystem Responses in the California Current, Scientific Reports 27612 doi:10.1038/srep27612 PDF

L.T. Thorne, M.G. Conners, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, M. Antolos, D.P. Costa, S.A. Shaffer, 2016. Effects of El Niño-driven changes in wind patterns on North Pacific albatrosses. Journal of the Royal Society Interface. 13: 20160196. PDF

G.C. Hays, L.C. Ferreira, A.M.M. Sequeira, M.G. Meekan, C.M. Duarte, H. Bailey, F. Bailleul, W.D. Bowen, M. J. Caley, D.P. Costa, V.M. Eguíluz, S. Fossette, A.S. Friedlaender, N. Gales, A.C. Gleiss, J. Gunn, R. Harcourt, E.L. Hazen, M.R. Heithaus, M. Heupel, K. Holland, M. Horning, I. Jonsen, G.L. Kooyman, C.G. Lowe, P.T. Madsen, H. Marsh, R.A. Phillips, D. Righton, Y. Ropert-Coudert, K. Sato, S.A. Shaffer, C.A. Simpfendorfer, D.W. Sims, G. Skomal, A. Takahashi, P.N. Trathan, M. Wikelski, J.N. Womble, and M. Thums, 2016. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2016.02.015 PDF

A.S. Friedlaender, E.L. Hazen, J.A. Goldbogen, A.K. Stimpert, J. Calambokidis, and B.L. Southall, 2016. Prey-mediated behavioral responses of feeding blue whales in controlled sound exposure experiments. Ecological Applications. doi: 10.1002/15-0783 PDF

S.J. Bograd, E.L. Hazen, S. Maxwell, A.W. Leising, H. Bailey, 2016. “Offshore Ecosystems”, in Ecosystems of California – A Source Book, H. Mooney and E. Zavaleta, eds., University of California Press, Oakland, CA, 287-303. Link

S.J. Bograd, A.W. Leising, and E.L. Hazen, 2016. “Oceanographic Drivers”, in Ecosystems of California – A Source Book, H. Mooney and E. Zavaleta, eds., University of California Press, Oakland, CA, 95-101. Link


E.L. Hazen, A.S. Friedlaender, J.A. Goldbogen, 2015. Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) optimize foraging efficiency by balancing oxygen use and energy gain as a function of prey density. Science Advances, 1:9 e1500469, DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500469. PDF

R.E. Whitlock, E.L. Hazen, A. Walli, C. Farwell, S.J. Bograd, D.G. Foley, B.A. Block, 2015. Foraging ecology of Pacific bluefin tuna: quantifying daily energy intake in relation to oceanography. Science Advances, 1:8 e1400270, DOI 0.1126/sciadv.1400270. PDF

M.G. Connors, E.L. Hazen, S.A. Shaffer, 2015.  Shadowed by Scale: Subtle Behavioral Niche Partitioning Revealed at the Individual and Species Level in Two Sympatric, Tropical, Chick-Brooding Albatross Species. Movement Ecology, 3:28. DOI 10.1186/s40462-015-0060-7. PDF

L.H. Thorne, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, D.G. Foley, M.G. Conners, M.A. Kappes, H.M. Kim, Y. Tremblay, D.P. Costa, and S.A. Shaffer, 2015. Sympatric North Pacific albatross species show contrasting responses to climate variability. Movement Ecology, 3:27 DOI: 10.1186/s40462-015-0050-9. PDF

T.M Thys, J.P Ryan, H. Dewar, C.R. Perle, K. Lyons, J. O’Sullivan, C. Farwell, M.J. Howard, K.C. Weng, B.E. Lavaniegos, G. Gaxiola-Castro, L.E.M. Bojorquez, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, 2015. Ecology of the Ocean Sunfish, Mola mola, in the southern California Current System. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 471: 64-76. PDF

T. Yamamoto, Y. Watanuki, E.L. Hazen, B. Nishizawa, H. Sasaki, A. Takahashi, 2015. Statistical integration of tracking and vessel survey data to incorporate life history differences in habitat models. Ecological Applications. doi:10.1890/15-0142.1. PDF

M.G. Jacox, S.J. Bograd, E.L. Hazen, J. Fiechter, 2015. Sensitivity of the California Current Nutrient Supply to Wind, Heat, and Remote Ocean Forcing. Geophysical Research Letters. doi:10.1002/2015GL065147. PDF

S.M. Maxwell, E.L. Hazen, R. Lewison, D. Dunn, H. Bailey, S.J. Bograd, A.J. Hobday, M. Bennett, S. Benson, D.K. Briscoe, M. Caldwell, D.P. Costa, H. Dewar, T. Eguchi, S. Fossette, L.J. Hazen, S. Kohin, T. Sippel, L.B. Crowder, 2015. Dynamic ocean management: Defining and conceptualizing real-time management of the ocean. Marine Policy. 58: 42-50. doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2015.03.014. PDF

A.B. Carlisle, S.Y. Litvin, E.L. Hazen, D.J. Madigan, K.J. Goldman, R. N. Lea, B. A. Block, 2015. Stable isotope analysis and strandings reveal habitat use of juvenile Salmon Sharks, Lamna ditropis, in the California Current. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 525: 217-228.  doi:10.3354/meps11183. PDF

R. Lewison, A.J. Hobday, S. Maxwell, E.L. Hazen, J.R. Hartog, D.C. Dunn, D. Briscoe, S. Fossette, C. E. O’Keefe, M. Barnes-Mauthe, M. Abecassi, S. J. Bograd, N. D. Bethoney, H. Bailey, D. Wiley,  S. Andrews,  E. Howell, L.J. Hazen, L.B. Crowder, 2015. Dynamic Ocean Management: 21st century approaches for marine resource management and conservation. BioScience doi:10.1093/biosci/biv018 PDF

J. Goldbogen, E.L. Hazen, A. Friedlaender, J. Calambokidis, S. DeRuiter, A. Stimpert, B. Southall, 2015. Prey density and distribution drive the three-dimensional foraging kinematics of the largest filter feeder. Functional Ecology , 29: 951–961. doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12395. PDF


S.J. Bograd, E.L. Hazen, E.A. Howell, and A.B. Hollowed. 2014. The Fate of Fisheries Oceanography: Introduction to the Special Issue. Oceanography 27(4):21–25. PDF

I.M. Belkin, G.L. Hunt, E.L. Hazen, J.E. Zamon, R. Schick, R. Prieto, J. Brodziak et al. 2014. Fronts, Fish, and Predators. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography. PDF

J.W. Young, B. Hunt, T. Cook, J. Llopiz, E.L. Hazen, H. Pethybridge, D. Ceccarelli, A. Lorrain, R.J. Olson, V. Allain, C. Menkes, T. Patterson, S. Nicol, P. Lehodey, R. Kloser, H. Arrizabalaga, M. Gasalla. 2014. The trophodynamics of top marine predators: advances and challenges. Deep Sea Research II, PDF

I.D. Schroeder, J.A. Santora, A.M. Moore, C.E. Edwards, J. Fiechter, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, J.C. Field, B.K. Wells. 2014. Application of a data-assimilative regional ocean modeling system for assessing California Current System ocean conditions, krill, and juvenile rockfish interannual variability, Geophysical Research Letters. DOI: 10.1002/2014GL061045. PDF

A.S. Friedlaender, J.G. Goldbogen, E.L. Hazen, J. Calambokidis, B.L. Southall. 2014. Feeding performance by sympatric blue and fin whales exploiting a common prey resource. Marine Mammal Science, 31:345-354. doi: 10.1111/mms.12134 PDF

A.J. Hobday, S. M. Maxwell, J. Forgie, J. McDonald, M. Darby, K. Seto, H. Bailey, S. J. Bograd, D. K. Briscoe, D. P. Costa, L. B. Crowder, D. C. Dunn, P. N. Halpin, J. R. Hartog, E.L. Hazen, B. G. Lascelles, R. L. Lewison and G. Poulos. 2014. Dynamic ocean management: Integrating scientific and technological capacity with law, policy and management. Stanford Environmental Law Journal, 33(2): 125-165 PDF

E. Willis-Norton, E.L. Hazen, S. Fossette, G. Shillinger, R. Rykaczewski, D.G. Foley, J. Dunne, S.J. Bograd. 2014. Climate change impacts on leatherback turtle pelagic habitat in the southeast Pacific. Deep-Sea Research II. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr2.2013.12.019. PDF

J. Stewart, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, A. Byrnes, D. Foley, W. Gilly, B. Robison, J. Field. 2014. Combined climate- and prey-mediated range expansion of Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), a large marine predator in the California Current System. Global Change Biology, doi:10.1111/gcb.12502. PDF


S.M. Maxwell, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd, B.S. Halpern, B. Nickel, G.A. Breed, N.M. Teutschel, L. B. Crowder, S. Benson, P.H. Dutton, H. Bailey, M.A. Kappes, C.E. Kuhn, M.J. Weise, B. Mate, S.A. Shaffer, J.L. Hassrick, R.W. Henry, L. Irvine, B.I. McDonald, P.W. Robinson, S. Simmons, B.A. Block, D.P. Costa. 2013. Pelagic predator distributions and anthropogenic impacts: implications for effective spatial management in the California Current. Nature Communications. 4:2688. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms3688. PDF

E.L. Hazen, R. Suryan, J. Santora, Y. Watanuke, S.J. Bograd, and R. Wilson. 2013. Scales and mechanisms of marine hotspot formation. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 487: 177–183. PDF

C. Ware, D. Wiley, A. Friedlaender, M. Weinrich, E.L. Hazen, A. Bocconcelli, S. Parks, A. Stimpert, M.
Thompson, K. Abernathy. 2013. Bottom Side-Roll Feeding by Humpback Whales (Megaptera Novaeangliae) in the Southern Gulf of Maine, USA. Marine Mammal Science. DOI: 10.1111/mms.12053. PDF

J.A. Goldbogen, B.L. Southall, S.L. DeRuiter, J. Calambokidis, A.S. Friedlaender, E.L. Hazen, E.A. Falcone, G.S. Schorr, A. Douglass, D. Moretti, C. Kyburg, M.F. McKenna, P.L.Tyack. 2013. Blue whales respond to simulated mid-frequency military sonar. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 280: 20130657. PDF

D.M. Palacios, E.L. Hazen, I.D. Schroeder, S.J. Bograd. 2013. Modeling the temperature-nitrate relationship in the coastal upwelling domain of the California Current. Journal of Geophysical Research. DOI: 10.1002/jgrc.20216. PDF

R. Lewison, B. Wallace, J. Alfaro-Shigueto, J. Mangel, S. M. Maxwell, E.L. Hazen. 2013. Fisheries bycatch: lessons learned from decades of research and conservation.  In: J. Wyneken (ed). The Biology of Sea Turtles, Volume 3. CRC Press. Ch.12: 329-351. PDF

E.L. Hazen, S.J. Jorgensen, R. Rykaczewski, S.J. Bograd, D.G. Foley, I.D. Jonsen, S.A. Shaffer, J. Dunne, D.P. Costa, L.B. Crowder, B.A. Block. 2013. Predicted Habitat Shifts of Pacific Top Predators in a Changing Climate. Nature Climate Change 3:234-238. DOI: 10.1038/nclimate1686. PDF

I.D. Schroeder, J. Santora, B.A. Black, W.J. Sydeman, E.L. Hazen, S.J. Bograd,  B.K. Wells.  2013. Deconstructing the North Pacific High. Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/grl.50100. PDF


E.L. Hazen, L.B. Crowder. 2012. Fisheries Ecology in Encyclopedia of Theoretical Ecology: University of California Press. Hastings, A. and Gross L. (ed). pp. 280-287. Link

E.L. Hazen, S. Maxwell, S.J. Bograd, H. Bailey, G. Shillinger, B. Godley, M. Hamann. 2012. Ontogeny in marine tagging and tracking science: technologies and data gaps. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 457: 221-240. PDF

G.L. Shillinger, H. Bailey, S.J. Bograd, E.L. Hazen, M. Hamann, P. Gaspar, B.J. Godley, R.P. Wilson, J.R. Spotila. 2012. Tagging through the stages: technical and ecological challenges in observing life histories through biologging. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 457: 165-170. PDF

J.S. Stewart, E.L. Hazen, D.G. Foley, S.J. Bograd, W.F. Gilly. 2012. Marine predator migration during range expansion: Humboldt squid Dosidicus gigas in the California Current System. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 471: 135-150. PDF

S.M. Maxwell, E.L. Hazen, L.E. Morgan, H. Bailey, R.L. Lewison. 2012. Finding Balance in Fisheries Management. (Response to “Reconsidering the consequences of selective fisheries”). Science 336: 413. PDF

B. Espinasse, M. Zhou, Y. Zhu, E.L. Hazen, A.S. Friedlaender, D.P. Nowacek, D. Chu, F. Carlotti. 2012. Austral fall transition of mesozooplankton assemblages and krill aggregations in an embayment west of the Antarctic Peninsula. Marine Ecology Progress Series 452: 63-80. PDF

G.L. Shillinger, E. Di Lorenzo, H. Luo, S.J. Bograd, E.L. Hazen, H. Bailey, J.R. Spotila. 2012. On the Dispersal of Leatherback Turtle Hatchlings from Meso-American Nesting Beaches. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2011.2348. PDF


E.L. Hazen,  Nowacek, D.P., St. Laurent, L., Moretti, D., Halpin, P. 2011 The Relationship among Oceanography, Prey Fields, and Beaked Whale Foraging Habitat in the Tongue of the Ocean. PLoS ONE 6(4): e19269. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019269. PDF

B.A. Block, I.D. Jonsen, S.J. Jorgensen, A.J. Winship, S.A. Shaffer, S.J. Bograd, E.L. Hazen, D.G. Foley, G.A. Breed, A-L. Harrison, J.E. Ganong, A. Swithenbank, M. Castleton, H. Dewar, B.R. Mate, G.L. Shillinger, K.M. Schaefer, S.R. Benson, M.J. Weise, R.W. Henry and D.P. Costa. 2011. Tracking Apex Marine Predator Movements in a Dynamic Ocean. Nature 475: 86–90. PDF

D.P. Nowacek, A.S. Friedlaender, P.N. Halpin, E.L. Hazen, D.W. Johnston, A.J. Read, M. Zhou, Y. Zhu. 2011. Super-aggregation of krill and humpback whales in Wilhelmina Bay, Antarctic Peninsula. PLoS One 6(4): e19173. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019173. PDF


E.L. Hazen and Johnston, D.J. 2010. Latitudinal Complexity in the Deep Scattering Layers and Top Predator Distribution in the Central Equatorial Pacific. Fisheries Oceanography 19: 427-433. PDF

P.A. Rudershausen, W.A. Mitchell, J.A. Buckel, E. H. Williams, E.L. Hazen. 2010. Developing a two-step fishery-independent design to estimate the relative abundance of deepwater reef fish: application to a marine protected area of the southeastern United States coast. Fisheries Research 105: 254-260. PDF


E.L. Hazen, A.S. Friedlaender, M. Thompson, C. Ware, M. Weinrich, P. Halpin, D. Wiley, 2009. Three dimensional prey aggregations and fine scale foraging ecology of Humpback whales (Megaptera novaengliae). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 395: 75-89. PDF

A.S. Friedlaender, E.L. Hazen, D.P. Nowacek, C. Ware, M. Weinrich, D. Wiley, M. Johnson. 2009. Diel changes in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding behavior in response to prey behavior and distribution. Marine Ecology Progress Series. 395:  91-100. PDF

E.L. Hazen, J.K. Craig, C.P. Good, L.B. Crowder. 2009. Vertical distribution of fish biomass in hypoxic waters on the Gulf of Mexico Shelf.  Marine Ecology Progress Series. 375: 195-207. PDF

L.M. Campbell, N.G. Gray, E.L. Hazen, J.M. Shackeroff. 2009. Beyond baselines: rethinking priorities for ocean conservation. Ecology and Society 14(1): 14. PDF

N. Avissar, E.L. Hazen, N. Young, L.B. Crowder. 2009. Will it Float? Testing a new technique for reducing sea turtle damage to crab pots.  North American Journal of Fisheries Management 29: 170-175. PDF

J.S. Shackeroff, E.L. Hazen, L.B. Crowder. 2009. Status and Drivers of Change in Marine Ecosystems.  in Ecosystem-based management for the Oceans: Applying Resilience Thinking, Island Press.  McLeod, K.L. and Leslie, H.M. (ed). Link

2008 and before

L.B. Crowder, E.L. Hazen, N. Avissar, R. Bjorkland, K. Latanich, M. Ogburn. 2008. The Impacts of Fisheries on Marine Ecosystems and the Transition to Ecosystem-Based Management.  Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 39, 259 – 278. PDF

E.L. Hazen, J.K.H. Horne. 2004. Comparing the modelled and measured target-strength variability of walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 61:3, 363 – 377.   PDF

E.L. Hazen, J.K.H. Horne. 2003. A method for evaluating the effects of biological factors on fish target strength. ICES Journal of Marine Science. 60:3, 555 – 562.   PDF